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ERIC Number: EJ829658
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Feb
Pages: 5
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 5
ISSN: ISSN-1529-8957
The Release of Learning
Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas
Principal Leadership, v9 n6 p18-22 Feb 2009
Principals are among the most important players in improving student achievement from year to year. What a teacher actually does in the classroom is important in terms of student achievement, but it is the principal who guides teachers to improved practice. Although any number of instructional frameworks are useful in improving student achievement, the authors' work has focused on the gradual release of responsibility. An optimal outcome of instruction is that students can independently apply what they have learned in unique situations. To ensure this, classrooms must be structured to purposefully and intentionally guide students toward mastery. Therefore, teachers must be acutely aware of the instructional moves that build student confidence and competence. Principals are key to making this happen. If the principal is an instructional leader, it seems reasonable for him or her to focus on classroom observations and feedback systems. But simply being in a classroom and seeing students at work will not change teacher behavior or student learning. Principals must know what to look for in a classroom and how to scaffold and guide teachers in implementing quality instruction. In this article, the authors explain the meaning of the gradual release of responsibility and its four components: (1) focus lessons; (2) guided instruction; (3) collaborative tasks; and (4) independent learning. They also discuss a three-process feedback model that guides teachers as they implement the instructional strategies. (Contains 1 figure.)
National Association of Secondary School Principals. 1904 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191-1537. Tel: 800-253-7746; Tel: 703-860-0200; Fax: 703-620-6534; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A