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ERIC Number: EJ828684
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Feb
Pages: 2
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 3
ISSN: ISSN-0021-9584
Gadolinium: Central Metal of the Lanthanoids
Laing, Michael
Journal of Chemical Education, v86 n2 p188-189 Feb 2009
The physical and chemical properties of gadolinium are compared with those of the other lanthanoids. Some properties are intermediate between those of lanthanum and lutetium; some between those of barium and hafnium; and others (unexpectedly) between those of ytterbium and lutetium. Both the remarkably high molar heat capacity of the metal and the discontinuous expansion of its unit cell parameters on cooling are related to its unusual magnetic properties. The "gadolinium break" is a real discontinuity observed in many properties: ionic radii, formation constants of complexes, and solvent extraction equilibria. The sawtooth pattern of values of IE[subscript 3] and [delta]H[subscript at] with atomic number for the lanthanoids is related to the quantum number "L" of the atomic species. The regular crystal field approach does not apply to the lanthanoid cations. A new arrangement of the lanthanoids in the periodic table places La, Gd, Lu in a column below Y, all having valence electron configuration s[superscript 2]d[superscript 1]. (Contains 1 table, 1 figure and 2 notes.)
Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society. Subscription Department, P.O. Box 1267, Bellmawr, NJ 08099-1267. Tel: 800-691-9846; Tel: 856-931-5825; Fax: 856-931-4115; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A