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ERIC Number: EJ826794
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Feb
Pages: 21
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 23
ISSN: ISSN-0169-0965
Changes in Frame of Reference Use across the Preschool Years: A Longitudinal Study of the Gestures and Speech Produced during Route Descriptions
Sekine, Kazuki
Language and Cognitive Processes, v24 n2 p218-238 Feb 2009
This study longitudinally investigated developmental changes in the frame of reference used by children in their gestures and speech. Fifteen children, between 4 and 6 years of age, were asked once a year to describe their route home from their nursery school. When the children were 4 years old, they tended to produce gestures that directly and continuously indicated their actual route in a large gesture space. In contrast, as 6-year-olds, their gestures were segmented and did not match the actual route. Instead, at age 6, the children seemed to create a virtual space in front of themselves to symbolically describe their route. These results indicate that the use of frames of reference develops across the preschool years, shifting from an actual environmental to an abstract environmental frame of reference. Factors underlying the development of frame of reference, including verbal encoding skills and experience, are discussed. (Contains 2 figures, 3 tables and 1 footnote.)
Psychology Press. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Preschool Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A