NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ824380
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2003-Dec
Pages: 20
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 35
ISSN: ISSN-0256-2928
Long-Term Comparison (1921-2001) of Numerical Knowledge in Three to Five-and-a-Half Year-Old Children
Bocerean, Christine; Fischer, Jean-Paul; Flieller, Andre
European Journal of Psychology of Education, v18 n4 p405-424 Dec 2003
This study contributes to the debate about the Flynn effect by proposing a long-term comparison (1921-2001) of the numerical knowledge of two cohorts of three- to five-and-a-half year-old children. In 1921, Beckmann (1923) assessed the numerical development of children using four tasks (Production, Distinction, Recognition, and Naming). In 2001, we used these same tasks to test 400 children equally divided into five age groups spaced six months apart. The main results are as follows: (1) the order of difficulty of the four tasks was the same in 2001 and 1921; (2) the 2001 cohort significantly outperformed the 1921 cohort with an advance in numerical development ranging from six months to one year, depending on the task; (3) the superiority of the 2001 children showed up by the age of 3; (4) the magnitude of the rise in scores varied across tasks (the greatest gain was found for the Naming task); and (5) the children in the two cohorts used the same number-evaluation strategies, but the 2001 children used more mature strategies on the Naming task than did same-age 1921 children, particularly subitizing for apprehending small numbers. The rise in scores seems to correspond to a genuine gain in numerical ability, apparently promoted by parental child-raising practices (cross-generational transmission). (Contains 2 figures, 8 tables, and 6 notes.)
Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada. Rua Jardim do Tabaco, 34, Lisboa 1149-041, Portugal. Tel: +351-21-881-1700; Fax: +351-21-886-0954; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Preschool Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: France; Germany