ERIC Number: EJ823727
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008-Nov
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
Memory Predictions Are Influenced by Perceptual Information: Evidence for Metacognitive Illusions
Rhodes, Matthew G.; Castel, Alan D.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, v137 n4 p615-625 Nov 2008
Although perceptual information is utilized to judge size or depth, little work has investigated whether such information is used to make memory predictions. The present study examined how the font size of to-be-remembered words influences predicted memory performance. Participants studied words for a free-recall test that varied in font size and made judgments of learning (JOLs) for each item. JOLs were influenced by font size, as larger font sizes were given higher JOLs, whereas little relationship was evident between font size and recall. The effect was modified when other, more valid, sources of information (e.g., associative strength) were available when JOLs were made and persisted despite experience with multiple study-test sessions, use of a forgetting scale to assess predictions, and explicit warning of participants that font size has little effect on memory performance. When ease of reading was manipulated, such that large font size words were made less fluent, the effect was eliminated. Thus, highly accessible perceptual cues can strongly influence JOLs, likely via encoding fluency, and this effect can lead to metacognitive illusions.
Descriptors: Cues, Memory, Learning Processes, Metacognition, Prediction, Visual Stimuli, Visual Perception, Recall (Psychology), Reading Fluency, Visual Measures
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
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