ERIC Number: EJ823708
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008-Nov
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
Effect of Retention in First Grade on Children's Achievement Trajectories over 4 Years: A Piecewise Growth Analysis Using Propensity Score Matching
Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.
Journal of Educational Psychology, v100 n4 p727-740 Nov 2008
The authors investigated the relatively short-term and longer term effects of grade retention in 1st grade on the growth of mathematics and reading achievement over 4 years. The authors initially identified a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children who were below the median in literacy at school entrance. From this sample, the authors closely matched 1 retained with 1 promoted child (n = 97 pairs) on the basis of propensity scores constructed from 72 background variables and compared growth of retained and promoted children using Rasch-modeled W scores and grade standard scores, which facilitate age-based and grade-based comparisons, respectively. When using W scores, retained children experienced a slower increase in both mathematics and reading achievement in the short term but a faster increase in reading achievement in the longer term than did the promoted children. When using grade standard scores, retained children experienced a faster increase in the short term but a faster decrease in the longer term in both mathematics and reading achievement than did promoted children. Some of the retention effects were moderated by limited English language proficiency, home-school relationship, and children's externalizing problems.
Descriptors: Grade Repetition, Grade 1, Mathematics Achievement, Reading Achievement, Elementary School Students, Comparative Analysis, Longitudinal Studies, Behavior Problems, Family School Relationship, Limited English Speaking
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1
Authoring Institution: N/A