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ERIC Number: EJ822401
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2003
Pages: 30
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 61
ISSN: ISSN-0039-8322
"Ownership" of English in the Outer Circle: An Alternative to the NS-NNS Dichotomy
Higgins, Christina
TESOL Quarterly: A Journal for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages and of Standard English as a Second Dialect, v37 n4 p615-644 Win 2003
The linguistic classification of English speakers from outer-circle countries, such as India, Malaysia, and Singapore, is often ambiguous because the Englishes they speak are considered different from interlanguages yet are not considered native varieties. This study investigates whether outer-circle speakers can be viewed as equivalent to speakers of mother-tongue varieties in terms of their "ownership" of English (Norton, 1997), that is, the degree to which they project themselves as legitimate speakers with authority over the language. An Acceptability Judgment Task was used to elicit and record talk among pairs from inner- and outer-circle countries while they judged 24 sentences. Drawing upon Zimmerman's (1998) concepts of "discourse identities" and "situated identities", Goffman's (1981) concept of "footing", and Scollon's (1998) distinctions among the "receptor roles," the analysis demonstrates the linguistic cues that indexed expressions of ownership through (a) references to the speakers' own English usage, (b) human subject pronouns, and (c) the modal "can". The results reveal variation in degrees of ownership among both groups, but similarities across outer- and inner-circle groups. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A