ERIC Number: EJ819369
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008-Dec
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
Verbal Short-Term Memory Span in Children: Long-Term Modality Dependent Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction
Geva, R.; Eshel, R.; Leitner, Y.; Fattal-Valevski, A.; Harel, S.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, v49 n12 p1321-1330 Dec 2008
Background: Recent reports showed that children born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at greater risk of experiencing verbal short-term memory span (STM) deficits that may impede their learning capacities at school. It is still unknown whether these deficits are modality dependent. Methods: This long-term, prospective design study examined modality-dependent verbal STM functions in children who were diagnosed at birth with IUGR (n = 138) and a control group (n = 64). Their STM skills were evaluated individually at 9 years of age with four conditions of the Visual-Aural Digit Span Test (VADS; Koppitz, 1981): auditory-oral, auditory-written, visuospatial-oral and visuospatial-written. Cognitive competence was evaluated with the short form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-revised (WISC-R95; Wechsler, 1998). Results: We found IUGR-related specific auditory-oral STM deficits (p less than 0.036) in conjunction with two double dissociations: an auditory-visuospatial (p less than 0.014) and an input-output processing distinction (p less than 0.014). Cognitive competence had a significant effect on all four conditions; however, the effect of IUGR on the auditory-oral condition was not overridden by the effect of intelligence quotient (IQ). Conclusions: Intrauterine growth restriction affects global competence and inter-modality processing, as well as distinct auditory input processing related to verbal STM functions. The findings support a long-term relationship between prenatal aberrant head growth and auditory verbal STM deficits by the end of the first decade of life. Empirical, clinical and educational implications are presented.
Descriptors: Control Groups, Intelligence, Intelligence Quotient, Short Term Memory, Children, Child Development, Individual Development, Cognitive Ability, Cognitive Processes, Auditory Perception, Spatial Ability
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children