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ERIC Number: EJ816019
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Jun
Pages: 14
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 23
ISSN: ISSN-1740-8989
Transfer or Specificity? An Applied Investigation into the Relationship between Fundamental Overarm Throwing and Related Sport Skills
O'Keeffe, S. L.; Harrison, A. J.; Smyth, P. J.
Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, v12 n2 p89-102 Jun 2007
Background: Optimum sequencing of skills so that learners can benefit from the transfer of previous learning is an important issue in teaching and learning of motor skills. There is a lack of empirical evidence on the specificity and transfer of learning and its application to teaching/coaching situations. Purpose: To investigate the concepts of transfer and specificity in a practical physical education setting. The study examined the effects of two teaching intervention programmes on the performance and learning of the fundamental overarm throw, badminton overhead clear and javelin throw in a practical physical education setting. Participants and setting: Forty-six participants (27 males, 19 females; mean age 15.8 plus or minus 0.60 years) from three secondary schools were assigned to one of three practice groups, i.e. the fundamental group, which practised the fundamental overarm throw; the badminton group, which practised the badminton overhead clear; and the control group, which did not practise but took part in normal physical education (PE) lessons. Intervention: The intervention programme consisted of six PE classes, and the skills taught were based on the practice groups. The control group carried on PE classes as normal, but no skills involving the overarm throwing action were taught. Research design: This study employed a repeated measures design involving three practice groups and three repeated measures (pre, post, retention). Performance scores for fundamental overarm throw, badminton overhead clear and javelin throw were measured. Data collection: Pre, post and retention tests were carried out on the fundamental overarm throw, badminton overhead clear and the javelin throw. All testing and teaching intervention classes were carried out in the participants' schools at scheduled physical education class time. Data analysis: Video tapes of all skill trials were analysed using qualitative analysis procedures. Data were statistically analysed to determine changes in skill performance between repeated measures. Findings: Results indicated that there was transfer from the fundamental overarm throw to the badminton overhead clear and the javelin throw (p less than 0.05) but that there was no transfer from the badminton overhead clear to the javelin throw. The results indicate that participants in the fundamental throw teaching programme showed significant learning effects not only in the fundamental overarm throw but also in the specific sport skills of the badminton overhead clear and the javelin throw. Conclusions: The results support the notion of transfer between fundamental motor skills and sport specific skills. This has practical implications for the teaching of physical education. (Contains 5 figures and 4 tables.)
Routledge. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A