ERIC Number: EJ812806
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Aug
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 52
Kinds of Thinking, Styles of Reasoning
Peters, Michael A.
Educational Philosophy and Theory, v39 n4 p350-363 Aug 2007
There is no more central issue to education than thinking and reasoning. Certainly, such an emphasis chimes with the rationalist and cognitive deep structure of the Western educational tradition. The contemporary tendency reinforced by cognitive science is to treat thinking ahistorically and aculturally as though physiology, brain structure and human evolution are all there is to say about thinking that is worthwhile or educationally significant. The movement of critical thinking also tends to treat thinking ahistorically, focusing on universal processes of logic and reasoning. Against this trend and against the scientific spirit of the age this paper presents a historical and philosophical picture of thinking. By contrast with dominant cognitive and logical models the paper emphasizes kinds of thinking and styles of reasoning. The paper grows out of interests primarily in the work of Nietzsche, Heidegger and Wittgenstein, and in the extension and development of their work in Critical Theory and French poststructuralist philosophy. The paper draws directly on some of this work to argue for the recognition of different kinds of thinking, which are explored by reference to Heidegger, and also the significance of styles of reasoning, which are explored by reference to Wittgenstein and to Ian Hacking.
Descriptors: Critical Theory, Physiology, Logical Thinking, Cognitive Psychology, Thinking Skills, Cognitive Science, Critical Thinking
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
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