ERIC Number: EJ810336
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 206
Direct and Indirect Aggression during Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analytic Review of Gender Differences, Intercorrelations, and Relations to Maladjustment
Card, Noel A.; Stucky, Brian D.; Sawalani, Gita M.; Little, Todd D.
Child Development, v79 n5 p1185-1229 Sep-Oct 2008
This meta-analytic review of 148 studies on child and adolescent direct and indirect aggression examined the magnitude of gender differences, intercorrelations between forms, and associations with maladjustment. Results confirmed prior findings of gender differences (favoring boys) in direct aggression and trivial gender differences in indirect aggression. Results also indicated a substantial intercorrelation ("r" = 0.76) between these forms. Despite this high intercorrelation, the 2 forms showed unique associations with maladjustment: Direct aggression is more strongly related to externalizing problems, poor peer relations, and low prosocial behavior, and indirect aggression is related to internalizing problems and "higher" prosocial behavior. Moderation of these effect sizes by method of assessment, age, gender, and several additional variables were systematically investigated.
Descriptors: Prosocial Behavior, Aggression, Adjustment (to Environment), Effect Size, Correlation, Gender Differences, Social Development, Meta Analysis, Children, Adolescents, Peer Relationship
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A