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ERIC Number: EJ805842
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2006
Pages: 13
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 39
ISSN: ISSN-0734-2829
Pencil Pressure and Anxiety in Drawings: A Techno-Projective Approach
LaRoque, Sean Davis; Obrzut, John E.
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, v24 n4 p381-393 2006
This study used a techno-projective assessment method to analyze the relationship between pencil pressure applied during drawing tasks and state anxiety (S-anxiety) and trait anxiety (T-anxiety) levels. A highly accurate and precise pressure-sensitive palette was used by participants (N = 50) between the ages of 6 and 11 to reliably and objectively measure the degree of pencil pressure during three drawing tasks: Draw-a-Person, Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and drawing an automobile. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) assessed the participants' levels of S-anxiety and T-anxiety. Results indicated that individuals with higher levels of T-anxiety used significantly less pencil pressure on all three drawing measures than individuals with lower levels of T-anxiety. Furthermore, individuals with high and low levels of S-anxiety used significantly more pencil pressure on all three drawing measures than individuals with medium levels of S-anxiety. Implications of these findings and considerations for future research are discussed. (Contains 6 tables.)
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1; Grade 2; Grade 3; Grade 4; Grade 5
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Draw a Person Test; Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test; State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children