ERIC Number: EJ804943
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008-May
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology II: Fowler & Wells's Phrenology
Trevino, Kelly M.; Konrad, Krista K.
Science & Education, v17 n5 p477-491 May 2008
Phrenologists believed that specific brain regions corresponded to certain character traits. In addition, the size of each brain region was believed to determine the strength of the respective trait. Phrenology originated in Austria with Franz Josef Gall and was popularized and commercialized in America at the end of the 19th century by Orson Squire Fowler. In this project, we conducted a replication of Fowler's phrenology in order to better understand the specificity of the manualized methodology, the extent to which the methodology allowed for positive versus negative analyses, and the implications for the scientific rejection and public acceptance of phrenology. The results of our replication revealed that the subjective judgments and biases of the examiner strongly influence the results of phrenological analyses.
Descriptors: Brain, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Individual Characteristics, Evaluation Methods, Measures (Individuals), Human Body, Public Opinion, Test Bias, Experimenter Characteristics, Researchers, Psychological Studies, History, Evaluation Research
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
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