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ERIC Number: EJ804123
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2006-Dec-4
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 21
ISSN: ISSN-1696-2095
The Influence of Circadian Type, Time of Day and Class Difficulty on Students' Grades
McElroy, Todd; Mosteller, Lynn
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, v4 n3 p611-622 Dec 2006
Introduction: In this paper we investigate how students' class grades are affected by individual differences in circadian rhythm, class time-of-day and class difficulty. Method: Using a sample of university students, we assessed morningness and eveningness personality type, and then obtained students recalled classes as well as their university-recorded classes and grades. Results and Conclusions: The results of our analysis revealed that, for very difficult classes, "optimal-time-of-day" played a significant role in determining students' grades. Our results also suggest that eveningness-type individuals appear to be most affected by standard class times. Analysis of our findings also revealed optimal-time-of-day effects for recall of the previous semester's classes. Aside from obvious implications for students, we mention implications also for teachers and administrators. (Contains 2 tables.)
University of Almeria, Education & Psychology I+D+i. Faculty of Psychology Department of Educational and Developmental Psychology, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, 04120 LaCanada de San Urbano, Almeria, Spain. Tel: +34-950-015354; Fax: +34-950-015083; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: Students; Teachers
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A