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ERIC Number: EJ803938
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2004-Sep
Pages: 15
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-0346-251X
An Insight into Listeners' Problems: Too Much Bottom-Up or Too Much Top-Down?
Field, John
System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, v32 n3 p363-377 Sep 2004
Difficulty in the early stages of second language listening is sometimes said to derive from too heavy a reliance upon bottom-up information. Less experienced listeners supposedly focus so much attention upon identifying sounds and words that they have no time or mental capacity left for building higher-level units of meaning. However, there is contrary evidence which indicates that non-native listeners make considerable use of top-down processes. This paper suggests that listening to a foreign language may be assisted by an interactive-compensatory mechanism already available in L1, which compensates for gaps in understanding. Two major questions are then raised: If top-down and bottom-up information are in apparent conflict, which one prevails? And how do learners deal with new items of vocabulary when they crop up in a listening passage? Three experiments attempted to find answers. (Contains 1 table.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A