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ERIC Number: EJ802390
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Dec-3
Pages: 26
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 29
ISSN: ISSN-1696-2095
Evaluating and Improving the Mathematics Teaching-Learning Process through Metacognition
Desoete, Annemie
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, v5 n3 p705-730 Dec 2007
Introduction: Despite all the emphasis on metacognition, researchers currently use different techniques to assess metacognition. The purpose of this contribution is to help to clarify some of the paradigms on the evaluation of metacognition. In addition the paper reviews studies aiming to improve the learning process through metacognition. Method: A longitudinal study was conducted on 32 children to investigate the mathematical learning and metacognitive skills in grade 3 and 4. Metacognitive skills were evaluated through teacher ratings, think aloud protocols, prospective and retrospective child ratings and EPA2000. In addition we described ways to enhance mathematics learning through metacognition. Results: Reflecting on the results of the present study there is evidence that how you evaluate is what you get. Child questionnaires do not seem to reflect actual skills, but they are useful to evaluate the metacognitive "knowledge" and "beliefs" of young children. Think aloud protocol analyses were found to be accurate, but time-consuming techniques to assess metacognitive "skills" of children with an adequate level of verbally fluency. Teacher questionnaires were found to have some value added in the evaluation of metacognitive skills. The data showed that metacognitive skillfulness assessed by teacher ratings accounted for 22.2% of the mathematics performances. In addition, a literature review shows that metacognition can be trained and has some value added in the intervention of young children solving mathematical problems. Conclusion: We suggest that teachers who are interested in metacognition in young children use multiple-method designs, including teacher questionnaires to get a complete picture of metacognitive skills. Taking into account the complex nature of mathematical learning, it may be useful to evaluate metacognitive skills in young children in order to focus on these factors and their role in mathematics learning and development. Studies also reveal that metacognition can be trained and has some value added in the intervention of young children solving mathematical problems. Our data seem to suggest that metacognitive skills need to be taught explicitly in order to improve and cannot be assumed to develop from freely experiencing mathematics. It might be possible that with more time allocated to metacognitive instruction, the mathematics teaching-learning process may improve. (Contains 4 tables.)
University of Almeria, Education & Psychology I+D+i. Faculty of Psychology Department of Educational and Developmental Psychology, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, 04120 LaCanada de San Urbano, Almeria, Spain. Tel: +34-950-015354; Fax: +34-950-015083; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 3; Grade 4
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Belgium