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ERIC Number: EJ798660
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008
Pages: 7
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 33
ISSN: ISSN-8756-3894
The Programmed Instruction Era: When Effectiveness Mattered
Molenda, Michael
TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, v52 n2 p52-58 Mar-Apr 2008
Programmed instruction (PI) was devised to make the teaching-learning process more humane by making it more effective and customized to individual differences. B.F. Skinner's original prescription was modified by later innovators to incorporate more human interaction, social reinforcers and other forms of feedback, larger and more flexible chunks of instruction, and more attention to learner appeal. Although PI itself has receded from the spotlight, technologies derived from PI, such as programmed tutoring, Direct Instruction, and Personalized System of Instruction have compiled an impressive track record of success when compared to so-called conventional instruction, paving the way for computer-based instruction and distance learning. PI innovators developed methods of instruction that were amenable to objective examination, testing, and revision, welcoming empirical testing of their products and demanding it of others. Today, the PI legacy lives on, mainly in corporate and military training, where efficiency and effectiveness matter because savings in learning time and cost have direct bearing on the well-being of the organization. As public purse strings tighten, the day may come when learning time and learning costs are subjected to close accountability in public school and university education also. (Contains 4 figures.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A