ERIC Number: EJ796507
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008-Jul
Reference Count: 0
Understanding and Using Mediators and Moderators
Wu, Amery D.; Zumbo, Bruno D.
Social Indicators Research, v87 n3 p367-392 Jul 2008
Mediation and moderation are two theories for refining and understanding a causal relationship. Empirical investigation of mediators and moderators requires an integrated research design rather than the data analyses driven approach often seen in the literature. This paper described the conceptual foundation, research design, data analysis, as well as inferences involved in a mediation and/or moderation investigation in both experimental and non-experimental (i.e., correlational) contexts. The essential distinctions between the investigation of mediators and moderators were summarized and juxtaposed in an example of a causal relationship between test difficulty and test anxiety. In addition, the more elaborate models, moderated mediation and mediated moderation, the use of structural equation models, and the problems with model misspecification were discussed conceptually.
Descriptors: Research Design, Investigations, Structural Equation Models, Data Analysis, Inferences, Test Anxiety, Causal Models, Correlation, Difficulty Level, Mediation Theory
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A