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ERIC Number: EJ794270
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008
Pages: 18
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-0021-8731
"Because We Do Not Know Their Way": Standardizing Practices and Peoples through Habitus, the NCLB "Highly-Qualified" Mandate, and PRAXIS I Examinations
Watanabe, Sundy
Journal of American Indian Education, v47 n1 p118-135 2008
Standardized testing, mandated by NCLB, can act as a barrier to prevent Indigenous students from entering teacher training programs and achieving "highly-qualified" certification upon exiting. Such regulations work against the nation-to-nation trust agreements that would place Indigenous teachers within Native school systems. Although experiencing difficulty, when these students analyze the epistemological underpinnings of standardized examinations, experience individualized writing instruction, and participate in exam preparation workshops, they can reach their immediate goals of teacher training as well as their long-term career goals of becoming educators in their home communities. Even under less than ideal circumstances, they can exercise self- and community-determination.
Center for Indian Education. Arizona State University, College of Education, P.O. Box 871311, Tempe, AZ 95287-1311. Tel: 480-965-6292; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: No Child Left Behind Act 2001
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Praxis Series