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ERIC Number: EJ793379
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008-May
Pages: 10
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: 18
ISSN: ISSN-0278-7393
The Stroop Effect: Why Proportion Congruent Has Nothing to Do with Congruency and Everything to Do with Contingency
Schmidt, James R.; Besner, Derek
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, v34 n3 p514-523 May 2008
The item-specific proportion congruent (ISPC) effect refers to the observation that the Stroop effect is larger for words that are presented mostly in congruent colors (e.g., "BLUE" presented 75% of the time in blue) and smaller for words that are presented mostly in a given incongruent color (e.g., "YELLOW" presented 75% of the time in orange). One account of the ISPC effect, the modulation hypothesis, is that participants modulate attention based on the identity of the word (i.e., participants allow the word to influence responding when it is presented mostly in its congruent color). Another account, the contingency hypothesis, is that participants use the word to predict the response that they will need to make (e.g., if the word is "YELLOW," then the response is probably "orange"). Reanalyses of data from L. L. Jacoby, D. S. Lindsay, and S. Hessels (2003), along with results from new experiments, are inconsistent with the modulation hypothesis but entirely consistent with the contingency hypothesis. A response threshold mechanism that uses contingency information provides a sufficient account of the data. (Contains 1 table, 5 figures, and 2 footnotes.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Canada