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ERIC Number: EJ791537
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007
Pages: 8
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 25
ISSN: ISSN-1060-6041
Elements of Diversity in Invitational Practice and Research
Schmidt, John J.
Journal of Invitational Theory and Practice, v13 p16-23 2007
Invitational theory uses many elements to define, describe, and delineate its beliefs and practices. For example, the Five Ps of people, places, policies, programs, and processes are consistently cited in the literature and research as the framework for assessing inviting practices. Another example is the presentation of four areas of inviting: (1) Inviting Oneself Personally; (2) Inviting Oneself Professionally; (3) Inviting Others Personally; and (4) Inviting Others Professionally. Such elements and components help to explain invitational theory and practices in an understandable language with useable concepts. All these concepts coexist in the approach known as "Invitational Education." As an inclusive model of communication and human relations, "Invitational Education," implies a belief system that embraces, celebrates, and honors diversity. Yet, invitational theorists and writers have not illustrated this proactive stance and genuine acceptance of diverse populations in many publications. A lack of research about invitational practices with diverse populations has encouraged this article. Perhaps what researchers and practitioners of invitational theory require is a schema or method by which to examine behaviors, the Five Ps, or other variables within multi-cultural and diverse contexts. In this article, the author proposes six elements of diversity (the Six E's) by which researchers and practitioners can assess relationships and organizations in terms of accepting, embracing, and celebrating diversity. These are: (1) empowerment; (2) encouragement; (3) enlistment; (4) enjoyment; (5) equity; and (6) expectation. This article is intended as a vehicle for discussion and, equally important, as a structure by which researchers and practitioners might develop methods of measuring and evaluating aspects of invitational theory and practice when applying principles and concepts with diverse students, clients, and other groups.
International Alliance for Invitational Education. Kennesaw State University, 1000 Chastain Road House #55, Kennesaw, GA 30144-5591. Tel: 770-423-6869; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Practitioners; Researchers
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A