ERIC Number: EJ790975
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008-Apr
Reference Count: 35
Improving the Peer-Review Process for Grant Applications: Reliability, Validity, Bias, and Generalizability
Marsh, Herbert W.; Jayasinghe, Upali W.; Bond, Nigel W.
American Psychologist, v63 n3 p160-168 Apr 2008
Peer review is a gatekeeper, the final arbiter of what is valued in academia, but it has been criticized in relation to traditional psychological research criteria of reliability, validity, generalizability, and potential biases. Despite a considerable literature, there is surprisingly little sound peer-review research examining these criteria or strategies for improving the process. This article summarizes the authors' research program with the Australian Research Council, which receives thousands of grant proposals from the social science, humanities, and science disciplines and reviews by assessors from all over the world. Using multilevel cross-classified models, the authors critically evaluated peer reviews of grant applications and potential biases associated with applicants, assessors, and their interaction (e.g., age, gender, university, academic rank, research team composition, nationality, experience). Peer reviews lacked reliability, but the only major systematic bias found involved the inflated, unreliable, and invalid ratings of assessors nominated by the applicants themselves. The authors propose a new approach, the reader system, which they evaluated with psychology and education grant proposals and found to be substantially more reliable and strategically advantageous than traditional peer reviews of grant applications.
Descriptors: Academic Rank (Professional), Psychological Studies, Validity, Social Sciences, Humanities, Grants, Peer Evaluation, Reliability, Foreign Countries, Gender Bias
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Australia