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ERIC Number: EJ790664
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2004
Pages: 23
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-1533-8916
Blurring the Lines for Learning: The Role of Out-of-School Programs as Complements to Formal Learning
Pittman, Karen J.; Irby, Merita; Yohalem, Nicole; Wilson-Ahlstrom, Alicia
New Directions for Youth Development, n101 p19-41 Spr 2004
As people enter the twenty-first century, there is broad agreement that all young people need to be fully prepared workers, citizens, parents, and partners. Public opinion and developmental research agree: academic competence, although critical, is not enough. Essential outcomes span a range of functional areas, pushing beyond academic knowledge or cognitive development to encompass broader moral, physical, civic, social, and vocational goals. At the same time, there is growing evidence that educators, policymakers, planners, philanthropists, and the public understand the need to push beyond the traditional boundaries of the school day, the school building, and the school agenda. Schools do not have the capacity on their own to ensure that all young people are prepared for the transition to careers, citizenship, and family and community life. They cannot and should not be the only learning organizations in young people's lives. Teachers and administrators recognize the need for more supports. Simultaneously, this pressure has reinforced communities' efforts to articulate their role as partners in education. But from both school and community perspectives, there is increased urgency not only to build linkages across traditional lines but to actually blur the lines, especially when it comes to outcomes, approaches, and content. The authors have previously explored the concept of "blurring the lines" in an earlier volume of this series, the focus of which is on blurring the lines during the out-of-school hours. Specifically, how does out-of-school-time programming complement formal learning? In this article, the authors first unpack and broaden the traditional definition of "academic" outcomes and content. Next, they turn to a discussion of content delivery approaches taken to address this broadened set of outcomes through out-of-school-time programming. Then, they turn to a discussion of approaches taken to address these outcomes through out-of-school-time programming. Finally, they touch on the question of scale. Highlighting a few examples at the district, community, network, and city levels, they briefly explore how such efforts are helping to build bridges and blur the lines, not only from a curriculum and content perspective but in terms of building coherent community-wide systems of support for learning. (Contains 2 figures, 2 tables and 15 notes.)
Jossey Bass. Available from John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774. Tel: 800-825-7550; Tel: 201-748-6645; Fax: 201-748-6021; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: No Child Left Behind Act 2001