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ERIC Number: EJ788262
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2006
Pages: 17
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: 96
ISSN: ISSN-0279-6015
The Structure of Phonological Awareness among Kindergarten Students
Runge, Timothy J.; Watkins, Marley W.
School Psychology Review, v35 n3 p370-386 2006
Phonological awareness, an understanding that spoken language is comprised of individual sounds, is an important construct that has implications for educational assessment and intervention. Unfortunately, the relationship between phonological awareness and its many operationalizations is ambiguous, resulting in both theoretical and practical difficulties. The present study clarified this situation by factor analyzing 23 preliteracy tests among a sample of 161 kindergarten students to determine the dimensionality of phonological awareness. Exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation revealed that phonological awareness is best understood as a two-dimensional construct among these students. The first dimension was defined by sound categorization, blending, segmenting, and manipulation tasks. This factor thus taps identification and manipulation of phonemes. The second factor was loaded by rhyming tasks. It is therefore the ability to recognize and create rhyming words. Letter knowledge and rapid serial naming emerged as factors separate from phonological awareness. (Contains 4 tables.)
National Association of School Psychologists. 4340 East West Highway Suite 402, Bethesda, MD 20814. Tel: 301-657-0270; Fax: 301-657-0275; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Kindergarten
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A