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ERIC Number: EJ787769
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2003
Pages: 15
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-0161-6463
Reaching the Grassroots: The Worldwide Diffusion of Iroquois Democratic Traditions
Johansen, Bruce E.; Grinde, Donald A., Jr.
American Indian Culture and Research Journal, v27 n2 p77-91 2003
After many years of intense debate, the idea that the Iroquois helped shape democracy has passed into the realm of general knowledge the length and breadth of "Turtle Island," and beyond. Although a few brushfires of criticism remain in academia, many people and organizations have been applying Iroquois political principles in their daily lives. As of November 2003, the roster of annotations had reached 1,404 items. According to records, the issue of Iroquois influence had appeared in 350 books; 184 articles in scholarly journals, including commentaries, letters to the editor, book and film reviews, and bibliographies; 169 other periodical articles, including book reviews; 377 newspaper or news-service articles, columns, letters, or book reviews, and 189 websites. Additionally, influence has been raised in 82 other venues, including several documentary films; a commencement speech at Wellesley College by Gloria Steinem; a radio essay by Hugh Downs; a presidential proclamation by Bill Clinton, several college course outlines and other school curricula; a segment of "Larry King Live" on Cable News Network; a speech by Canadian Minister of Constitutional Affairs Joe Clark; and a feature film, "The Indian in the Cupboard", in 1995. The subject now has its own Library of Congress classification, citations in three dozen legal journals, and was mentioned by Janet Reno in a speech when she was U.S. Attorney General. Iroquois influence has also been seen in a set of U.S. history trading cards and a 1958 "Classics Illustrated" comic book. "Exemplar of Liberty" was excerpted in Portland State University's enhanced curriculum website, "Iroquois Confederacy and the U.S. Constitution." The goal of the curriculum site is to increase adolescents' knowledge about the Iroquois influence on the development of democracy. An expanded compact disc (CD) version of the website also was created for schools that have limited Internet access. In addition, Donald A. Grinde, Jr., worked with Raymond Skye (Tuscarora) on a CD version of the Great Law and its interpretation by Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) people. Grinde helped with the historical portions, giving special attention to the Iroquois influence on American government. (Contains 42 notes.)
American Indian Studies Center at UCLA. 3220 Campbell Hall, Box 951548, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1548. Tel: 310-825-7315; Fax: 310-206-7060; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Grade 4
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A