ERIC Number: EJ786013
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008-Jan
Reference Count: N/A
From Ugly Duckling to Swan? Japanese and American Beliefs about the Stability and Origins of Traits
Lockhart, Kristi L.; Nakashima, Nobuko; Inagaki, Kayoko; Keil, Frank C.
Cognitive Development, v23 n1 p155-179 Jan 2008
Two studies compared the development of beliefs about the stability and origins of physical and psychological traits in Japan and the United States in three age groups: 5-6-year-olds, 8-10-year-olds, and college students. The youngest children in both cultures were the most optimistic about negative traits changing in a positive direction over development and being maintained over the aging period. The belief that individual differences in traits are inborn increased with age, and in all age groups, this belief was related to predictions of greater trait stability. In both cultures, all ages believed positive traits would be maintained over development. In addition to developmental similarities across cultures, cultural variations, consistent with the hypothesis that interdependent cultures have a more incremental view of traits, were present. Japanese participants were more optimistic than American participants about negative traits changing towards the positive and were more likely to attribute differences in trait expression to effort.
Descriptors: Personality Traits, Cultural Differences, Foreign Countries, Beliefs, College Students, Individual Differences, Prediction, Comparative Analysis, Physical Characteristics, Age Differences
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Japan; United States