ERIC Number: EJ784049
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008-Feb
Reference Count: 0
Randomized Trial of a Gatekeeper Program for Suicide Prevention: 1-Year Impact on Secondary School Staff
Wyman, Peter A.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Inman, Jeff; Cross, Wendi; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Guo, Jing; Pena, Juan B.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v76 n1 p104-115 Feb 2008
Gatekeeper-training programs, designed to increase identification and referral of suicidal individuals, are widespread but largely untested. A group-based randomized trial with 32 schools examined impact of Question, Persuade, Refer (QPR) training on a stratified random sample of 249 staff with 1-year average follow-up. To test QPR impact, the authors introduced and contrasted 2 models of gatekeeper-training effects in a population: gatekeeper surveillance and gatekeeper communication. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that training increased self-reported knowledge (effect size [ES] = 0.41), appraisals of efficacy (ES = 1.22), and service access (ES = 1.07). Training effects varied dramatically. Appraisals increased most for staff with lowest baseline appraisals, and suicide identification behaviors increased most for staff already communicating with students about suicide and distress. Consistent with the communication model, increased knowledge and appraisals were not sufficient to increase suicide identification behaviors. Also consistent with the communication model were results from 2,059 8th and 10th graders surveyed showing that fewer students with prior suicide attempts endorsed talking to adults about distress. Skill training for staff serving as "natural gatekeepers" plus interventions that modify students' help-seeking behaviors are recommended to supplement universal gatekeeper training.
Descriptors: Help Seeking, Prevention, Suicide, Identification, Program Effectiveness, Secondary School Students, Teacher Role, Referral, Psychological Patterns, Grade 8, Grade 10, Teacher Student Relationship, Skill Development, Secondary School Teachers, Intervention
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail: email@example.com; Web site: http://www.apa.org/publications
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Grade 10; Grade 8; Secondary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A