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ERIC Number: EJ783986
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2003-Jul
Pages: 12
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-0022-1341
Geography, Ground-Level Reality, and the Epistemology of Malcolm X
Tyner, James A.
Journal of Geography, v102 n4 p167-178 Jul 2003
Geographers have, in recent years, attempted to re-fashion a critical race pedagogy. Accordingly, propositions have been forwarded that geographers use readings that validate the experiences of diverse groups. In so doing we may provide students with a critical understanding of racism and other forms of discrimination as societal phenomena. This paper provides a critical reading of the epistemology of Malcolm X. Although recognized as an out-spoken critic of the Civil Rights movement, the larger geographic and pedagogic contributions of Malcolm X have largely been ignored within the geographic community. With an emphasis on Malcolm X's geopolitical thought, however, I contend that geographers have much to learn from the life and work of this theorist. In particular, I forward the idea that Malcolm X was, on the eve of his death, formulating an explicitly regional-based, geographically informed understanding of racism and imperialism, an understanding that was grounded in his personal experiences, travels, and reading of history.
National Council for Geographic Education. Jacksonville State University, 206A Martin Hall, Jacksonville, AL 36265-1602. Tel: 256-782-5293; Fax: 256-782-5336; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A