NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ783058
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008-Jan
Pages: 14
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-0012-1649
Nonmaternal Care in Infancy and Emotional/Behavioral Difficulties at 4 Years Old: Moderation by Family Risk Characteristics
Cote, Sylvana M.; Borge, Anne I.; Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Rutter, Michael; Tremblay, Richard E.
Developmental Psychology, v44 n1 p155-168 Jan 2008
The authors examined the role of familial risk and child characteristics in the association between the type of child care in infancy (maternal care [MC]) versus nonmaternal care [NMC]) and emotional/behavioral difficulties at 4 years old. Canadian families (N=1,358) with children between 1 and 12 months old were followed over 4 years. Family risks were found to moderate the association between type of child care and physical aggression. MC in infancy was associated with lower levels of physical aggression among children from a low-risk family background but not among those from a high-risk family background. The effect size was small (d=-0.16; confidence interval [CI]=-0.3, -0.01). Family risk and the sex of the child moderated the association between child care and emotional problems. MC in infancy was associated with a lower level of emotional difficulties among girls from low-risk families but not among boys or among children from high-risk families. The effect size was moderate (d=-0.44; CI=-0.65, -0.23). The study indicates that the effect of child care type in infancy varies by family and child characteristics.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Canada