ERIC Number: EJ781869
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008-Feb
Reference Count: 0
Short-Term Effects of Grade Retention on the Growth Rate of Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Math and Reading Scores
Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.
Journal of School Psychology, v46 n1 p85-105 Feb 2008
We investigated the effects of grade retention in first grade on the growth of the Woodcock-Johnson broad mathematics and reading scores over three years using linear growth curve modeling on an academically at-risk sample. A large sample (n=784) of first grade children who were at risk for retention was initially identified based on low literacy scores. Scores representing propensity for retention were constructed based on 72 variables collected in comprehensive baseline testing in first grade. We closely matched 97 pairs of retained and promoted children based on their propensity scores using optimal matching procedures. This procedure adjusted for baseline differences between the retained and promoted children. We found that grade retention decreased the growth rate of mathematical skills but had no significant effect on reading skills. In addition, several potential moderators of the effect of retention on growth of mathematical and reading skills were identified including limited English language proficiency and children's conduct problems.
Descriptors: Grade Repetition, Reading Skills, Grade 1, Language Proficiency, Mathematics Skills, Scores, Literacy, Predictor Variables
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Grade 1
Authoring Institution: N/A