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ERIC Number: EJ781285
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Nov
Pages: 21
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-0022-0663
Development of the Interplay between Automatic Processes and Cognitive Resources in Reading
Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Wei, Min; Grifith-Ross, Diana A.; Goubert, Sarah E.; Cooper, Alison L.; Zha, Peijia
Journal of Educational Psychology, v99 n4 p867-887 Nov 2007
An account was tested of the development of the interplay between automatic processes and cognitive resources in reading. According to compensatory-encoding theory, with advancing skill, readers increasingly keep automatic processes from faltering and provide timely, accurate data to working memory by pausing, looking back, rereading, and compensating in other ways when automatic processes fail. Reading skill profiles (e.g., word naming, semantic access, working memory capacity) were obtained from 71 third graders, 68 fifth graders, and 72 seventh graders from a university lab school or a public school (ages 7 to 15; 146 Caucasians, 61 African Americans, 2 Native Americans, 2 Latino Americans). Children participated in an unrestricted reading task (no time or performance pressure) and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 levels of 3 experimental manipulations of restriction on reading: time pressure or no pressure, constant reading rate or variable reading rate, read silently or read aloud. Regression analyses revealed that developmental level and restriction moderated the reading skill level-comprehension relationship, and restriction lowered comprehension when it overwhelmed skills, especially for younger readers. Verbally inefficient readers compensated most often, and older readers compensated most efficiently.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 3; Grade 5; Grade 7
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A