NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ781282
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Nov
Pages: 17
Abstractor: Author
ISSN: ISSN-0022-0663
Signaling in Expository Hypertexts Compensates for Deficits in Reading Skill
Naumann, Johannes; Richter, Tobias; Flender, Jurgen; Christmann, Ursula; Groeben, Norbert
Journal of Educational Psychology, v99 n4 p791-807 Nov 2007
Expository hypertexts may contain specific types of signals such as navigable topical overviews and hyperlinks that map conceptual relationships between text contents. Two experiments with German university students (N = 130, 75% female, mean age 25 years) were conducted to test the hypothesis that hypertext-specific signals particularly support learners with badly routinized reading skills in organizing and integrating complex learning materials. The experiments were based on naturalistic texts and essay-writing tasks typical for exam preparation. Learning outcomes were measured by characteristics of participants' essays (amount of knowledge, knowledge focusing, knowledge integration). In both experiments, a hypertext with a high amount of signaling yielded better learning outcomes than did a linear text for readers with a low level of skill, whereas there were no differences for readers with a high level of skill (?R[superscript 2] from 0.03 to 0.08 for the interaction). In Experiment 2, the same interaction pattern was found for hypertext with a high versus a low amount of hypertext-specific signals (?R[superscript 2] from 0.04 to 0.10). Moreover, a lack of signals led to less efficient navigation behavior. These results demonstrate that hypertexts equipped with hypertext-specific signals may compensate for deficits in reading skill.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Germany