ERIC Number: EJ781175
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2005-Aug-11
Reference Count: N/A
Still No 40 Acres, Still No Mule
Keels, Crystal L.
Black Issues in Higher Education, v22 n13 p18-21 Aug 2005
The simple mention of reparations for African-Americans in the United States can be counted on to generate a firestorm. When it comes to the issue of recompense for injustices Black Americans have suffered throughout U.S. history--slavery, Jim Crow segregation, and other political and social mechanisms designed to maintain racial inequality--the question of accountability is one the nation has historically ignored. The United States has customarily denied the need for restitution for the "peculiar institution" of slavery and its aftermath, and the legendary post-civil war promise of "40 acres and a mule" still remains elusive. But in the 21st century, avoiding the issue is becoming increasingly difficult as activists, scholars, politicians and grass-roots organizations work diligently to ensure that the issue of reparations for African-Americans and all people of African descent is one the country--indeed the world--must at least consider. This article reports on a spate of recent acknowledgements and public apologies for connections to the crime of slavery and other racial injustices that have surprised many, considering a cultural context that for centuries maintained an adamant disavowal of responsibility for the degradation of millions of people of African descent.
Descriptors: African Americans, Racial Bias, History, Racial Segregation, War, Slavery, Cultural Context, Compensation (Remuneration), Civil Rights, Accountability
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Brown v Board of Education