NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ780936
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Jun
Pages: 34
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: 63
ISSN: ISSN-1082-4669
The Differential Effects of Repeating Kindergarten
Burkam, David T.; LoGerfo, Laura; Ready, Doug; Lee, Valerie E.
Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, v12 n2 p103-136 Jun 2007
We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate national patterns addressing (a) who repeats kindergarten, and (b) the subsequent cognitive effects of this event. Using OLS regression techniques, we investigate 1st-time kindergartners who are promoted, 1st-time kindergartners who are retained, and children who are already repeating kindergarten. Boys, children from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and children who enter kindergarten younger than typical age standards are consistently at risk for repeating kindergarten, but racial/ethnic patterns differ across the 2 cohorts of kindergarten repeaters. Evidence suggests that repeating kindergarten rarely leads to cognitive benefits in literacy or mathematics performance. On average, kindergarten repeaters continue to perform below their peers in terms of literacy skills both at the end of kindergarten and at the end of first grade (effect size [ES] = -0.20 and -0.24, respectively). In mathematics, the performance differentials are smaller but remain statistically significant. Evidence suggests that these differences vary somewhat by children's background and the school setting. Most children appear to receive little or no cognitive benefit from repeating kindergarten, suggesting the need for a careful reconsideration of current retention practices. (Contains 9 tables and 4 footnotes.)
Lawrence Erlbaum. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Kindergarten
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Spencer Foundation, Chicago, IL.
Authoring Institution: N/A