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ERIC Number: EJ780007
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Dec
Pages: 20
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: 38
ISSN: ISSN-0924-3453
Traditional and Non-Traditional Educational Outcomes: Trade-Off or Complementarity?
van der Wal, Marieke; Waslander, Sietske
School Effectiveness and School Improvement, v18 n4 p409-428 Dec 2007
Recently, schools have increasingly been charged with enhancing non-traditional academic competencies, in addition to traditional academic competencies. This article raises the question whether schools can implement these new educational goals in their curricula and simultaneously realise the traditional ones or whether a trade-off between educational goals occurs in schools. It is argued that this question centres on the issue of whether the development of traditional and non-traditional competencies is complementary or competitive. By reviewing the literature and by conducting multivariate multilevel analysis on data gathered in 26 secondary schools in The Netherlands, the article addresses the probability of occurrence of school trade-off between educational outcomes. Results of our analyses do not unambiguously support the occurrence of trade-off, nor the proposition that traditional and non-traditional competencies are complementary. It is concluded that both trade-off and complementarity may occur, depending on specific school conditions. (Contains 1 figure, 3 tables and 1 note. Appended are the following: Elaboration on multivariate multilevel analysis; and Univariate multilevel analyses on perceived academic competence, perceived social competence, political engagement, knowledge of the democratic system, reading, mathematics, and general self-concept.)
Routledge. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Middle Schools; Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Netherlands
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Self Description Questionnaire