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ERIC Number: EJ779502
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2003
Pages: 20
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-0011-0000
Hakoniwa: Japanese Sandplay Therapy
Enns, Carolyn Zerbe; Kasai, Makiko
Counseling Psychologist, v31 n1 p93-112 2003
Hakoniwa (ha ko ne wa), or Sandplay therapy, is an action-oriented and artistic psychotherapy practiced in Japan and the West. In contrast to most Western psychotherapies, which emphasize verbal and direct expression, linear and cause-effect thinking, and a distinction between physical and mental well-being, Hakoniwa makes significant use of nonverbal communication, concrete activity, and a holistic perspective. To increase understanding of international perspectives on psychotherapy, this article describes Hakoniwa, discusses its relationship to Jungian and Eastern philosophy, clarifies how Japanese values and perspectives on the self and mental health are consistent with the practice of Hakoniwa, and proposes research questions.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Japan