NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ777426
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Nov
Pages: 9
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-0022-0965
Choosing between Two Objects Reduces 3-Year-Olds' Errors on a Reverse-Contingency Test of Executive Function
Carroll, Daniel J.; Apperly, Ian A.; Riggs, Kevin J.
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, v98 n3 p184-192 Nov 2007
In the present experiment, we used a reversed-contingency paradigm (the windows task: [Russell, J., Mauthner, N., Sharpe, S., & Tidswell, T. (1991). The windows task as a measure of strategic deception in preschoolers and autistic subjects. "British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9," 331-349]) to explore the effect of alterations in the task array on 3-year-old children's strategic reasoning. Children were offered a choice between either a desirable object and an undesirable object, or between a desirable object and an empty location. There was significantly better performance on the two-object version of the task. This difference was evident even on subsequent trials when the second object was removed and the empty location reintroduced. This suggests that presenting children with a choice between two objects helps them to formulate a strategy, rather than to execute a previously determined response.
Elsevier. 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887-4800. Tel: 877-839-7126; Tel: 407-345-4020; Fax: 407-363-1354; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Early Childhood Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A