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ERIC Number: EJ776138
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Sep
Pages: 26
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-1045-3830
A Longitudinal Study of Grade Retention: Academic and Behavioral Outcomes of Retained Students through Adolescence
Jimerson, Shane R.; Ferguson, Phillip
School Psychology Quarterly, v22 n3 p314-339 Sep 2007
Most research examining the efficacy of early grade retention has been limited to outcomes during elementary school. A notable gap in the retention literature is the dearth of studies examining outcomes during late adolescence. The results of this prospective longitudinal study include comparisons among four unique samples: (1) early grade retainees; (2) students retained in a transition classroom; (3) students recommended for transitional placement but promoted; and (4) regularly promoted students, through the eleventh grade. Results of this study failed to demonstrate the effectiveness of grade retention on academic achievement. Moreover, analyses of behavior suggest that retained students display more aggression during adolescence. Furthermore, the group of students recommended for transitional placement, but promoted, were comparable to the control group on all achievement and behavior measures during high school. The results of this study may be further understood considering a transactional model of development, emphasizing the importance of early experiences on subsequent development. The results of longitudinal studies of grade retention warrant further consideration in developing educational policies and implementing effective prevention and early intervention strategies.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A