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ERIC Number: EJ766336
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-May
Pages: 13
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-0022-0663
Students' Self-Reported Effort and Time on Homework in Six School Subjects: Between-Students Differences and Within-Student Variation
Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver
Journal of Educational Psychology, v99 n2 p432-444 May 2007
Effort on homework has a profound impact on student achievement. Researchers typically use an interindividual research design to explain homework effort. In this study with a total of 511 students from Grades 8 and 9, an interindividual perspective (focus on between-students differences) was combined with an intraindividual perspective (focus on within-student differences). Multilevel modeling showed that students' homework effort was a function of between-students differences in conscientiousness and within-student differences in perceived homework characteristics (subject-specific quality of tasks and homework control), perceived parental valuation of specific subjects, and homework motivation (subject-specific expectancy and value beliefs). Furthermore, a significant cross-level interaction indicated that perceived homework control by teachers had a stronger effect on students low in conscientiousness than on their more conscientious peers.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 8; Grade 9
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A