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ERIC Number: EJ765475
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2006-Mar
Pages: 29
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: 70
ISSN: ISSN-0021-8251
Arithmetic and Algebra in Early Mathematics Education
Carraher, David W.; Schliemann, Analucia D.; Brizuela, Barbara M.; Earnest, Darrell
Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, v37 n2 p87-115 Mar 2006
Algebra instruction has traditionally been postponed until adolescence because of historical reasons (algebra emerged relatively recently), assumptions about psychological development ("developmental constraints" and "developmental readiness"), and data documenting the difficulties that adolescents have with algebra. Here we provide evidence that young students, aged 9-10 years, can make use of algebraic ideas and representations typically absent from the early mathematics curriculum and thought to be beyond students' reach. The data come from a 30-month longitudinal classroom study of four classrooms in a public school in Massachusetts, with students between Grades 2-4. The data help clarify the conditions under which young students can integrate algebraic concepts and representations into their thinking. It is hoped that the present findings, along with those emerging from other research groups, will provide a research basis for integrating algebra into early mathematics education. (Contains 9 figures and 1 footnote.)
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 1906 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191-1502. Tel: 800-235-7566; Tel: 703-620-3702; Fax: 703-476-2970; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 2; Grade 3; Grade 4
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Massachusetts