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ERIC Number: EJ762743
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Jun
Pages: 14
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-0272-7757
Does "Examination Hell" Pay Off? A Cost-Benefit Analysis of "Ronin" and College Education in Japan
Ono, Hiroshi
Economics of Education Review, v26 n3 p271-284 Jun 2007
College-bound students in Japan undergo a process of intense preparation known as "examination hell." An extreme manifestation of "examination hell" is the "ronin" phenomenon. Typically 30% of students choose the "ronin" option under which they spend years in addition to high school preparing for the next year's college entrance examinations. Using the mean scores of the entrance examinations as a measure of college quality, I find that college quality significantly improves the internal rate of return (IRR) to college education among the sample of male graduates in Japan. "Ronin" increases earnings indirectly by improving the quality of the college attended. I also show that the "IRR" with respect to "ronin" is one of diminishing returns. On average, the number of "ronin" years which maximizes the "IRR" is found to be somewhere between 1 and 2 years.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Japan