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ERIC Number: EJ751989
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2006-Mar
Pages: 9
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: 17
ISSN: ISSN-0036-6803
How Do Students Know What They Learn in Middle School Mathematics Is True?
Flores, Alfinio
School Science and Mathematics, v106 n3 p124 Mar 2006
This article presents ways in which students ascertain that what they have learned in mathematics is true. Students in the middle school (and a few from other grades) were interviewed by prospective and in-service teachers. Students were asked what they had learned recently in mathematics and how they knew it was true. The answers were grouped by the author according to the justification schemes used by the students in their explanations. Students interviewed used three kinds of justification schemes: externally based, empirical, and analytic. For each kind, examples are provided of students' justifications. Additional insights are included from the reflections of the interviewers. Some suggestions are offered regarding how teachers can help increase their students' ability to give convincing arguments in mathematics. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)
School Science and Mathematics Association. Texas A&M University, TAMU 4232, College Station, TX 77843. Tel: 979-862-8100; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Middle Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A