ERIC Number: EJ748627
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2005-Feb
Reference Count: N/A
Two Moments of School Architecture in Sao Paulo: Ramos de Azevedo and His Republican Pioneering Schools/Helio Duarte and the "Educational Agreement"
Lima, Ana Gabriela Godinho
Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education, v41 n1-2 p215-241 Feb 2005
There are two peculiar moments in the history of the "struggle for national education", which, specifically in the city of Sao Paulo, capital of the State of Sao Paulo, one of the major and richest cities in Brazil, produced very interesting results in school architecture. The first moment happened in the period called the "First Republic" (1889-1930), when the country abandoned the "Imperial" era. The old and poor city had been practically rebuilt by initiative of the republican government, assuming a European appearance. In this context, the public education service became a motive of the paulistanos (the citizens of Sao Paulo), which is well illustrated by the set of public school buildings erected at that time. There was a great name related to the reshaping of the city and the construction of public schools: Francisco de Paula Ramos de Azevedo (1851-1928), architect and head of Ramos de Azevedo Technical Office, where most of the large-scale public projects of the city were designed at that time. Among the huge amount of projects he carried on in his prestigious professional career, there were at least seven school buildings that illustrate his capacity to create a symbolic architectonical image for public education, and where, at the same time, he could employ his personal concepts regarding the theme. Three of them were built in the period ranging from 1890 to 1898, amazing the citizens and launching new paradigms for school architecture in Sao Paulo at that time. The second peculiar moment occurs during a period of strong industrialization in Brazil, which ranges from 1930 to approximately 1964. Sao Paulo greatly extended its limits, with the creation of numerous new neighborhoods. In terms of school architecture in the city, the interval between 1949 and 1954 has special meaning. It was during these years that the "Educational Agreement" was in force under the leadership of the Architect Helio Duarte (1906-1989). This "Agreement", celebrated between the state government and the municipality of Sao Paulo, allowed the construction of dozens of schools in the city, in an attempt to meet the demands of a growing population in a growing city. Behind each school project conceived within the context of this program there was the vision of Duarte, an idealistic professional who had a close connection with important names in Brazilian education of that period, especially Anisio Teixeira. Duarte had a consistent educational background and a commitment to the ideals of Modern Architecture, a conjunction that resulted in schools that made a very strong architectonic mark and had a precisely delineated functional program distributed in their spaces.
Descriptors: Educational Facilities Design, Public Education, Public Schools, School Buildings, School Construction, Industrialization, Architecture, Foreign Countries, Municipalities, Partnerships in Education, Historical Interpretation, Sequential Approach, Change Agents
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Brazil