ERIC Number: EJ742197
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2006-Aug
Reference Count: N/A
Code-Oriented Instruction for Kindergarten Students at Risk for Reading Difficulties: A Randomized Field Trial with Paraeducator Implementers
Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Peyton, Julia A.
Journal of Educational Psychology, v98 n3 p508-528 Aug 2006
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of code-oriented supplemental instruction for kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties. Paraeducators were trained to provide 18 weeks of explicit instruction in phonemic skills and the alphabetic code. Students identified by their teachers meeting study eligibility criteria were randomly assigned to 2 groups: individual supplemental instruction and control. Students were pretested in December, midtested, and posttested in May-June of kindergarten. At posttest, treatment students significantly outperformed controls on measures of reading accuracy, reading efficiency, oral reading fluency, and developmental spelling. Treatment students had significantly higher linear growth rates in phonemic awareness and alphabetic knowledge during the kindergarten treatment. At a 1-year follow-up, significant group differences remained in reading accuracy and efficiency. Ethical challenges of longitudinal intervention research are discussed. Findings have policy implications for making supplemental instruction in critical early reading skills available.
Descriptors: Kindergarten, High Risk Students, Reading Difficulties, Instructional Effectiveness, Reading Instruction, Phonemes, Longitudinal Studies, Pretests Posttests, Outcomes of Treatment, Field Experience Programs, Paraprofessional School Personnel, Supplementary Education
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Web site: http://www.apa.org/publications.
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Kindergarten
Authoring Institution: N/A
What Works Clearinghouse Reviewed: Meets Evidence Standards without Reservations
WWC Study Page: https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Study/33477
IES Cited: ED511908