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ERIC Number: EJ742194
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2006-May
Pages: 12
Abstractor: Author
ISSN: ISSN-0022-0663
Long-Term Positive Associations between Music Lessons and IQ
Schellenberg, E. Glenn
Journal of Educational Psychology, v98 n2 p457-468 May 2006
In Study 1 (N = 147), duration of music lessons was correlated positively with IQ and with academic ability among 6-to 11-year-olds, even when potential confounding variables (i.e., family income, parents' education, involvement in nonmusical activities) were held constant. In Study 2 (N = 150), similar but weaker associations between playing music in childhood and intellectual functioning were evident among undergraduates. In both studies, there was no evidence that musical involvement had stronger associations with some aspects of cognitive ability (e.g., mathematical, spatial-temporal, verbal) than with others. These results indicate that formal exposure to music in childhood is associated positively with IQ and with academic performance and that such associations are small but general and long lasting.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A