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ERIC Number: EJ740774
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2004
Pages: 5
Abstractor: ERIC
ISSN: ISSN-0892-4562
The Psychological UNIFORM: Using Mental Skills in Youth Sport
Johnson, Crystal A.; Gilbert, Jenelle N.
Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators, v18 n2 p5-9 Nov-Dec 2004
Most athletes can benefit from practicing and using mental skills within a sport context, but budgets do not always allow the hiring of a Sport Psychologists to implement a mental skills training program. With guidance, however, dedicated coaches can help athletes develop the mental side of their game by providing basic psychological skills. A simple psychological skills training tool called Psychological UNIFORM, developed by these authors, can help coaches assist young athletes from ages 8 to 18. UNIFORM is an acronym for seven skills: (1) Use goal setting; (2) No mistakes, only learning opportunities; (3) Imagery; (4) Full focus; (5) Overtly positive; (6) Relaxation; and (7) Make routines. These skills can assist young athletes in achieving higher levels of performance by improving their mental outlooks. The authors state that although it will take time to develop these psychological UNIFORM skills, the time invested will be well spent, particularly when coaches and athletes realize increased gains in self-confidence and performance levels. (Contains 3 tables.)
American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. 1900 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191. Tel: 800-213-7193; Fax: 703-476-9527; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A