ERIC Number: EJ729933
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2004
Processing Speed, Intelligence, Creativity, and School Performance: Testing of Causal Hypotheses Using Structural Equation Models
Rindermann, H.; Neubauer, A. C.
Intelligence, v32 n6 p573-589 Nov-Dec 2004
According to mental speed theory of intelligence, the speed of information processing constitutes an important basis for cognitive abilities. However, the question, how mental speed relates to real world criteria, like school, academic, or job performance, is still unanswered. The aim of the study is to test an indirect speed-factor model in comparison to rivaling models explaining the relationships between different mental abilities and performance. In this speed-factor model, basic cognitive processing is assumed to influence higher mental abilities (IQ and creativity). Intelligence and creativity themselves should be valid predictors of school performance. We computed bivariate correlations and structural equation models to test this hypothesis, using indicators of processing speed [Zahlen-Verbindungs-Test (ZVT) and Coding Test], psychometric intelligence [Kognitiver Fahigkeits-Test (KFT) and Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM)], creativity [Verbaler Kreativitats-Test (VKT) and Verwendungs-Test (VWT)] and school performance (grades). In a sample of 271 students from German gymnasiums (Class Levels 9 to 11) the "speed-factor model" can reproduce at best the empirical relationships between processing speed, intelligence, creativity, and school performance: It assumes that processing speed influences higher mental abilities (intelligence and creativity), which, in the sequel, influence school performance. Therefore, processing speed seems to have no direct effect on school performance; the effect is indirect as it operates via mediation through higher cognitive abilities.
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Cognitive Ability, Intelligence, Creativity, Academic Achievement, Hypothesis Testing, Structural Equation Models, Secondary School Students, Foreign Countries
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Secondary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Germany
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Raven Progressive Matrices