ERIC Number: EJ724196
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2005-Nov
Reference Count: N/A
Combined Expectancy Effects: An Accumulator Model
Cognitive Psychology, v51 n3 p214-255 Nov 2005
When participants use cues to prepare for a likely stimulus or a likely response, reaction times are facilitated by valid cues but prolonged by invalid cues. In studies on combined expectancy effects, two cues give information regarding two dimensions of the forthcoming task. When the two cues consist of two separable stimuli their effects are approximately additive. When cues are presented as an integrated stimulus, cueing effects interact. A model is presented that simulates effects like these. The model assumes that cues affect different processing stages. When implicit information suggests that expectancies are unrelated, as for instance with separated cues, cueing effects at early and late levels of processing remain independent. When implicit information suggests that expectancies are related, as with integrated cues, however, a mechanism that is sensitive to the validity of the early stage cue, leads to an adjustment of the cueing effect at the late stage. The model is based on neurophysiologically plausible assumptions, it is given explicitly in mathematical terms, and it provides a good fit to a large body of empirical data.
Descriptors: Cues, Expectation, Models, Cognitive Psychology, Foreign Countries, Stimuli, Simulation
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Germany