ERIC Number: EJ721784
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2005-Dec
Reference Count: 98
Which Males or Females Are Most at Risk and on What? An Analysis of Gender Differentials within the Primary School System of Trinidad and Tobago
De Lisle, Jerome; Smith, Peter; Jules, Vena
Educational Studies, v31 n4 p393-418 Dec 2005
This paper reviews the work on gendered achievement in the English-speaking Caribbean, with its often explicit focus on underachieving males. However, patterns of gendered achievement are more likely region-specific and variegated in some contexts. In Trinidad and Tobago, the full-scale implementation of national assessments in 2004 provided an opportunity to evaluate mathematics and language performance across the entire pupil population at standards 1 (7- to 8-year-olds) and 3 (9- to 10-year-olds). Census data from the high-stakes 2003 Secondary Entrance Assessment (SEA) administered at standard 5 (ages: 10-11+) were also included in the analysis. Therefore the entire dataset consisted of 52,284 primary school students (26,574 males and 25,710 females). The findings confirmed that female pupils had a statistically significant advantage on all assessments. However, in terms of practical significance, most differentials were negligible to small. Medium-sized differentials were obtained for pupils of low ability, living in rural educational districts, and on language arts. Male achievement scores were also more variable for lower grade levels, low ability groups and language arts. Paradoxically, in some educational districts secondary school placement opportunities still favoured males. These variegated patterns of gendered achievement may be associated with differences in institutional effectiveness and variations in male socialization practices that are especially evident across the urban-rural divide.
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Socialization, Gender Differences, High Risk Students, Elementary School Students, Achievement Tests, Academic Achievement, Underachievement, Language Arts, Academic Ability, Geographic Regions, Mathematics Achievement
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Primary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Trinidad and Tobago