ERIC Number: EJ720168
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2004
Reference Count: N/A
Loneliness among Older Adults in the Netherlands, Italy, and Canada: A Multifaceted Comparison
van Tilburg,Theo; Havens, Betty; de Jong-Gierveld, Jenny
Canadian Journal on Aging, v23 n2 p169-180 Sum 2004
Loneliness is experienced in many cultures. To properly assess cross-cultural differences, attention should be paid to the level, determinants, and measurement of loneliness. However, cross-cultural studies have rarely taken into account more than one of these. Differences in the level of loneliness were hypothesized on the basis of national differences in partnership, kinship, and friendship, which were assumed to be related to cultural standards within a society. Differences were examined among married and widowed older adults aged 70 to 89 years living independently in the Netherlands (N=1,847), Tuscany, Italy (N=562), and Manitoba, Canada (N=1,134). Loneliness was measured with an 11-item scale. The Manitobans were high on emotional loneliness and the Tuscans were high on social loneliness. Partner status excepted, the determinants were nearly the same across the three locations. Differential item functioning (DIF) related to the three locations was observed for most items. Interactions with gender and the availability of a partner relationship were observed.
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Psychological Patterns, Older Adults, Cultural Differences, Emotional Response, Social Isolation, Marital Status, Gender Differences, Comparative Analysis
Canadian Counselling Association, 116 Albert Street, Suite 702, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5G3 Canada. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Canada; Italy; Netherlands